Agreement With The Sioux Of Various Tribes

“The Sioux nation was sovereign before white men arrived,” Hirsch says, “and these contracts recognize that and recognize that.” But reading the 36-page document, it is clear that the United States had an agenda that did not fully fit the concept of self-determination for Native Americans. (There is no “n” in conjou, and this “n” should be excluded – because it was misspelled in the early days, many people do not say it correctly today. Today there are different spellings for different dictionaries and people). Similar provisions have appeared in nine such contracts with different tribes. In practice, the “bad men among whites” clause has rarely been enforced. The first plaintiff to win a lawsuit on the disposition did so in 2009, based on the 1868 Fort Laramie contract. [33]:2521 In 1868, the United States entered into the contract with a collective of Indian groups historically known as the Sioux (Dakota, Lakota and Nakota) and Arapaho. The contract founded the Great Sioux Reservation, a large piece of land west of the Missouri River. He also called the Black Hills “immeasurable Indian territory” for exclusive use by indigenous people.

But when the gold was found in the Black Hills, the United States broke the agreement, refounded the treaty`s boundaries, and locked the Sioux — traditionally nomadic hunters — to an agricultural way of life on the reservation. This was a blatant lifting that has been at the centre of the legal debate ever since. Article 3 provided that allocations of 160 acres (65 hectares) of arable land were to be reserved for agriculture by tribal members. [31] [43]:15 Until 1871, 200 farms of 80 Acres (32 ha) and 200 farms of 40 Acres (16 ha) were established, including 80 houses. Until 1877, there were 153 houses, “50 of which had she-wolf roofs and most floors,” according to an 1876 Bureau of Indian Affairs report. [43]:15 Article 11 contained several provisions stipulating that tribes agreed to oppose the construction of railways (three times mentioned), to remove military posts and roads, and not to attack or conquer white settlers or their property. The same guarantee protected third parties who were defined as “person-friendly” with the United States. [7]:1002 The government agreed to reimburse the tribes for damage caused during the construction of works on the reserve, to the extent assessed by “three disinterested commissioners” appointed by the president. [31] It guaranteed tribes access to the area north and west of the Black Hills[k] as a hunting ground “as long as buffaloes can have such numbers that they justify hunting.” [46]:4 In 1873, the United States exercised the right to withhold pensions and compensate for Sioux injustices against anyone, including the Indian. Following a massacre of a moving Pawnee camp during a legal Sioux hunting expedition in Nebraska, [f][34][35]:53-7[36]:41[37], the Sioux were “forced, Reparations for the loss of stolen life, meat, skins, equipment and horses…”[38]:46 The Pawnees received $9,000. [34]:139[39]:154 This article announces the postponement of the Indian title to the country east of the summit of the Big Horn Mountains at the Powder River (the battle zone of the Red Cloud War).

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