What Agreement Ended The Soviet Union

Q. When you signed the Belavezha agreement 25 years ago, how did you see the future of Belarus? Similar to how the country is today? The six Warsaw Pact countries in Eastern Europe, although nominally independent, were widely recognized as Soviet satellite states. All had been occupied by the Soviet Red Army in 1945, had imposed Soviet-style socialist states, and had very limited freedom of action in domestic or international affairs. All steps towards real independence were suppressed by military force – in the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 and in the Prague Spring of 1968. Gorbachev abandoned the oppressive and costly Brezhnev doctrine, which foreshadowed intervention in warsaw Pact states, in favor of non-interference in the internal affairs of allies – jokingly called the Sinatra Doctrine in reference to Frank Sinatra`s song “My Way.” Poland was the first republic to democratize after the adoption of the April amendment, as agreed between the government and the Solidarność trade union after discussions on the agreement of the Polish round table from February to April, and soon the pact began to dissolve. The last of the countries to end communism, Romania, did so only after the violent Romanian revolution. Gorbachev was increasingly pushed in two different directions by democrats who wanted even more freedom and autonomy for the republics, and conservatives who wanted to end reforms that they believed would break the Union. The idiosyncratic of the Russian Republic, Boris Yeltsin, was a particularly radical thorn in Gorbachev`s camp. Yeltsin, who radically left the Communist Party in 1990, called for Gorbachev`s resignation after the Soviet military cracked down on Lithuania and other republics seeking independence and greater sovereignty.

A draft document was prepared overnight and a 14-point declaration was adopted the following day. The agreement entered into force on December 12 after being ratified by all three parliaments with only a handful of opposition votes. On December 21, the three Belavezha signatories met with the leaders of eight other Soviet republics in Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan, and they all signed a protocol of accession to the CIS. The United Nations recognized the document on December 23. Q. There is another legend about the Belavezha: that Mikhail Gorbachev was angry with Boris Yeltsin because Yeltsin was first [then US President] George H. V. Bush called him to talk to him about the deal, and only then did he inform Gorbachev.

On March 4, 1989, the Memorial Society was founded in Kiev, dedicated to honoring the victims of Stalinism and purging society of Soviet practices. The next day, a public rally was held. On 12 March, a pre-election meeting organised by the Ukrainian Helsinki Union and the Marian Society Myloserdia (Compassion) in Lviv was violently dispersed and nearly 300 people arrested. On 26 March, elections were held for the Trade Union Congress of People`s Deputies; By-elections were held on 9 April, 14 May and 21 May. Of Ukraine`s 225 congress representatives, most were conservative, although a handful of progressives were also elected. .